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Healthy Skepticism International News

October 2002


Armstrong, D., Reyburn, H. & Jones, R.  (1996).  A study of general practitioners’ reasons for changing their prescribing behaviour.  British Medical Journal, 312, 949-952.

Association of Teachers of Ethics and Law in Australia and New Zealand Medical Schools (ATEAM).  (2001).  Position Statement: An ethics core curriculum for Australasian medical schools.  Medical Journal of Australia, 175, 205-210.

Australian Medical Association.  (1996).  Code of Ethics.  Position Statements [On-line].  Available:

Avorn, J., Chren, M. & Hartley, R.  (1982).  Scientific vs commercial sources of influence on the prescribing behaviour of physicians.  American Journal of Medicine, 73, 4-8.

Backer, E., Lebsack, J., Van Tonder, R. & Crabtree, B.  (2000).  The value of pharmaceutical representative visits and medication samples in community-based medicine.  Journal of Family Practice, 49(9), 811-820.

Beary, J.  (1996).  Pharmaceutical marketing has real and proven value.  Journal of General Internal Medicine, 11, 575-583.

Berings, D., Blondeel, L. & Habraken, H.  (1994).  The effect of industry-independent drug information on the prescribing of benzodiazepines in general practice.  European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 46, 501-505.

Billig, M.  (1987).  Arguing and Thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Billig, M.  (1991).  Ideologies and beliefs.  London: Sage.

Billig, M., Condor, S., Edwards, D., Gane, M., Middleton, D. & Radley, A.  (1988).  Ideological Dilemmas: A social psychology of everyday thinking.  London: Sage Publications.

Bower, A. & Burkett, G.  (1987).  Family physicians and generic drugs.  Journal of Family Practice, 24, 612-616.

Breen, K.  (2001).  Professional development and ethics for today’s and tomorrow’s doctors: There is no lack of ethical and professional challenges for doctors.  Medical Journal of Australia, 175, 183-184.

Brotzman, G. & Mark, D.  (1993).  The effect on residents attitudes of regulatory policies regarding pharmaceutical representatives activities.  Journal of General Internal Medicine, 8, 130-134.

Caudill, T., Johnson, M., Rich, E. & McKinney, P.  (1996).  Physicians, pharmaceutical sales representatives and the cost of prescribing.  Archives of Family Medicine, 5, 201-206.

Chren, M. & Landefeld, C.  (1994).  Physicians’ behaviour and their interactions with drug companies.  Journal of The American Medical Association, 271, 684-689.

Chren, M., Landefeld, C. & Murray, T.  (1989).  Doctors, drug companies, and gifts.  Journal of The American Medical Association, 262, 3448-3451.

Gill, P., Freemantle, N., Bero, L., Haaijer-Ruskamp, F., Markela, M. & Barjesteh, K.  (1996).  GPs’ prescribing behaviour may be affected by drug promotion [Letter to the editor].  British Medical Journal, 313, 367.

Goddard, M., Henry, D. & Birkett, D.  (2001).  Costs and benefits: Securing the future of the pharmaceutical benefits scheme.  Unpublished manuscript.

Goffman, I.  (1981).  Forms of Talk.  Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Greenhalgh, T.  (1997).  Papers that report drug trials (How to read a paper, part 6).  British Medical Journal, 315, 480-484.

Griffith, D.  (1999).  Reasons for not seeing drug representatives.  British Medical Journal, 319, 69-70.

Haayer, F.  (1982).  Rational prescribing and sources of information.  Social Science of Medicine, 16, 2017-2023.

Jones, M., Greenfield, S. & Bradley, C.  (2001).  Prescribing new drugs: Qualitative study of influences on consultants and general practitioners.  British Medical Journal, 323, 1-7.

Lexchin, J.  (1989).  Doctors and detailers: Therapeutic education or pharmaceutical promotion?  International Journal of Health Sciences, 19, 663-679.

Lexchin, J.  (1993).  Interactions between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: What does the literature say?  Canadian Medical Association Journal, 149, 1401-1407.

Light, E.  (2001, September 3).  Docs charge reps for time [World round-up].  Australian Medicine, p. 2.

McKinney, W., Schiedermayer, D., Lurie, N., Simpson, D., Goodman, J. & Rich, E.  (1990).  Attitudes of internal medicine faculty and residents toward professional interaction with pharmaceutical sales representatives.  Journal of The American Medical Association, 264, 1693-1697.

Mansfield, P.  (2001, Summer).  Pushing expensive new drugs.  Consuming Interest, p. 27-29.

Mansfield, P. & Lexchin, J.  (2000).  Scepticism and beliefs about new drugs.  Unpublished manuscript.

Morelli, D. & Koenigsberg, M.  (1992).  Sample medication dispensing in a residency practice.  Journal of Family Practice, 34, 42-47.

Moscovici, S.  (1984).  The phenomenon of social representations, in R. M. Farr and S. Moscovici (Eds.), Social Representations.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Murphy, K.  (1999, May 28).  Guidelines on when to reject gift offers.  Australian Doctor, p. 8.

Orlowski, J. & Wateska, L.  (1992).  The effects of pharmaceutical firm enticements on physician prescribing patterns: There’s no such thing as a free lunch.  Chest, 102(1), 270-273.

Peay, M. & Peay, R.  (1988).  The role of commercial sources in the adoption of a new drug.  Social Science and Medicine, 26, 1183-1189.

Pomerantz, A.  (1986).  Extreme case formulations: A new way of legitimating claims.  Human Studies, 9, 219-230.

Potter, J.  (1996).  Representing Reality: Discourse, rhetoric and social construction.  London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Potter, J. & Wetherell, M.  (1987).  Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour.  London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Roughead, E.  (1995).  The pharmaceutical representative and medical practitioner encounter: Implications for quality use of medicines.  Unpublished master’s thesis, Latrobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Shaughnessy, A. & Slawson, D.  (1996).  Pharmaceutical representatives.  British Medical Journal, 312, 1494-1995.

Siegal, D. & Lopez, J.  (1997).  Trends in antihypertensive drug use in the United States: Do the JNC V recommendations affect prescribing?  Journal of The American Medical Association, 278, 1745-1748.

Steinman, M., Shlipak, M. & McPhee, S.  (2001).  Of principles and pens: Attitudes and practices of medicine housestaff toward pharmaceutical industry promotions.  The American Journal of Medicine, 110, 551-557.

Susman, E.  (2001, July 17).  U.S. doctors touchy on topic of pharmaceutical gifts.  The Medical Post, p. 9.

Thomson, A., Craig, B. & Barham, P.  (1994).  Attitudes of general practitioners in New Zealand to pharmaceutical representatives.  British Journal of General Practice, 44, 220-226.

Wazana, A.  (2000).  Physicians and the pharmaceutical industry: Is a gift ever just a gift?  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(3), 373-383.

Westfall, J., McCabe, J. & Nicholas, R.  (1997).  Personal use of drug samples be physicians and office staff.  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 141-143.

Westfall, J.  (1998, June).  Drug samples: Benefit or bait? [Letter in reply to letter to the editor].  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279, 1698-1700.

Westfall, J.  (2000).  Physicians, pharmaceutical representatives, and patients: Who really benefits?  Journal of Family Practice, 49(9), 817-820.

Wetherell, M. & Potter, J.  (1992).  Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimisation of exploitation.  London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.

Wolf, B.  (1998, June).  Drug samples: Benefit or bait? [Letter to the editor].  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(21), 1698-1700.

Woolgar, S. & Pawluch, D.  (1985).  Ontological gerry-mandering: The anatomy of social problems explanations.  Social Problems, 32, 214-227.

Ziegler, M., Lew, P. & Singer, B.  (1995).  The accuracy of drug information from pharmaceutical sales representatives.  The Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 1296-1298.



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